I am greatfully to NSF and LRSM-RET programme for their financilal support which enabled me to attain research
experience at the University of Pennslyvania and Drexel University. Dr. Santiago Jorge my research advisor for his valuable
discussions, positive high expectations, leadership, and teaching. Nangia J. , graduate student at Upenn., and
Juan MF, graduate student from the university ofPuerto Rico at Humacao for teaming up with me. Dr. Nikolov for
his assistance with Raman scattering, and Dr. Rabii of the engineering department for helping set up programs for my high
school students. The co-ordinators James Mcgonigle and Burnside Holly for their wonderful co-ordination.